Creation Stories - Myth Encyclopedia (2023)

People have long wondered how the world came into being. They have answered the question with stories that describe the origin of the universe or the world and usually of human life as well. Creation myths, known as cosmogonies, express people's understanding of the world and their place in it.

The world's mythologies and religions offer an immense variety of creation stories. Yet scholars have discovered that the cosmogonies of different cultures fall into broad categories and contain many shared themes.

Forms and Themes of Creation

Some creation stories, such as those of Africa and Polynesia, existed for years in spoken form but were not written down until recently. Other cultures preserved their cosmogonies in written texts, and some of these have survived from ancient times. The Babylonian epic Enuma Elish, written thousands of years ago, tells how people in Mesopotamia * explained the beginning of the world. A Mayan text called the Popol Vuh describes the creation of the ancestors of the Maya.

Types of Creation. Some methods of creation appear again and again in cosmogonies from different parts of the world. One of the most common images is a description of the beginning of the world as a birth, a kind of creation familiar to everyone. The birth may result from the mating of a pair of cosmic parents. The Maori of New Zealand, for example, say that the union of Rangi and Papa (Father Sky and Mother Earth) produced all things.

The hatching of an egg is another familiar kind of birth. Some creation myths tell of a cosmic egg containing the seeds or possibilities of everything. The hatching of the egg lets the possibilities take form. The Hindu texts known as the Upanishads describe the creation of the world as the breaking of a cosmic egg.

Another type of cosmogony says that the actions, thoughts, or desires of a supreme being or creator god brought the world into existence. The book of Genesis in the Old Testament of the Bible tells how God created the world and everything in it. Other accounts of creation by a supreme being can be found in many regions, from the island of Hokkaido in northern Japan to the island of Tierra del Fuego in southern South America.

Sometimes the created order simply emerges from a primal chaos—a state of disorder. In Norse * mythology, the scene of creation is an emptiness of wind and mist until clouds form and harden into the frost giant Ymir, from whose body the world is made. Many Native American myths tell how animals and people appeared on earth by climbing out of a chaotic or primitive underworld.

The primal chaos is often a flood or a vast expanse of water. The people of ancient Egypt—who relied on the yearly floods of the Nile River to support their agriculture—said that before creation there existed only Nun, a watery abyss. In some flood myths, creation takes place as the waters recede or as land rises. In others, an earth diver, a bird or an animal, plunges to the bottom of the water and brings up mud that becomes the earth. Such myths, which are common among Native Americans, seldom explain where the mud or the earth-diving creature came from. Many cosmogonies concern the shaping or ordering of the world rather than its creation from nothingness. They often begin with some substance, being, or active force already in existence.

In some mythologies, the creation of people occurs through emergence from the earth. Native American groups such as the Hopi, Zuni, and Navajo say that the first people traveled though a series of lower worlds to reach their permanent home. In some stories, a flood forces the occupants of the lower worlds to climb upward until they arrive on the surface.

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Themes in Creation Myths. In explaining how creation led to the world as it now exists, cosmogonies explore several basic themes. Most creation myths illustrate one or more of these themes.

The theme of separation or differentiation deals with the forming of distinct things out of what was once a formless unity. Separation may be a physical act. In Polynesian myth, for example, the children of Mother Earth and Father Sky force their parents apart so that the world can exist between them. Cosmogonies may describe creation as taking place in stages that mark the process of differentiation. The Old Testament says that God took six days to create light and darkness, the heavens, the earth and plants, the sun and moon, the sea creatures and animals, and the first people.

A second theme is imperfection. According to many cosmogonies, the creator planned to make a perfect world, but something went wrong. As a result, flaws such as evil, illness, and death entered the creation. The Dogon of West Africa say that the world is imperfect because one of a pair of twins broke out early from the cosmic egg. The Hawaiians relate that the earth goddess Papa cursed humans with death after she discovered an incestuous affair between her husband and daughter.

Dualism, or tension between opposing forces, is an underlying theme of many creation stories, especially those that revolve around conflict. Greek myths about the war between the Titans * and the gods are just one example of conflict between cosmic parents and their offspring. Sometimes the conflict involves twins or brothers. Some Native Americans of the northeast woodlands explain that the world is the way it is because two gods played a role in its creation. Gluskap, good and wise, created plants, animals, and people. His evil, selfish brother Malsum made poisonous snakes and plants.

The theme of sacrifice reflects the idea that life is born out of death. Someone must die, or at least shed blood, before the world and life can begin. The Enuma Elish tells how the god Marduk killed the primeval goddess Tiamat and cut her body into two parts that became the heavens and the earth. Sometimes the first people are made from a god's blood, perhaps mixed with dust or clay. Creation may also involve the slaying of a primal beast or monster.

A few cosmogonies describe cycles in which the world is created and destroyed a number of times. Hindu scriptures say that Brahma * has remade the world many times. Four ages, or yugas, make a kalpa, or eon. When a kalpa ends, creation dissolves into chaos.

The Omaha Big Bang

Modern scientists think that the universe began billions of years ago with an explosion of matter and energy called the Big Bang. The Native American Omaha people have their own "big bang" account of creation. At first all living things were spirits floating through space, looking for a place to exist in bodily form. The sun was too hot. The moon was too cold. The earth was covered with water. Then a huge boulder rose out of the water and exploded with a roar and a burst of flame that dried the water. Land appeared. The spirits of plants settled on earth. Animal spirits followed. Finally the spirits of people took bodily form on earth.

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differentiation process of becoming different and separate from another thing

The Aztecs of Mexico believed that the present world was the fifth that the gods had created. It was fated to end in universal destruction by earthquakes. The four previous worlds had been destroyed by a great flood, the falling of the sky, a fire storm, and a wind storm. The Maya believed that the gods made three unsuccessful attempts to create human beings before achieving a satisfactory result. Their first creations—animals, people made of mud, and wooden people—disappointed them in various ways, and they abandoned or destroyed them. Finally, the gods made people of maize (corn) who were perfect, so perfect that their creators clouded their vision to prevent them from seeing too far.

Stories of the Great Beginning

Every region of the world has produced numerous creation stories, and some cultures and religions have more than one. A sampling of myths from various sources shows both the endless variety of cosmogonies and the similarities in their structures and themes.

Africa. Some African creation myths feature a huge snake, often identified with the rainbow, whose coils make up the universe. In West and Central Africa the idea of creation from a cosmic egg is common.

Twins or paired, dualistic powers appear in many African creation stories. The Fon of West Africa tell of the first mother, Nana Buluku, who gave birth to the twins Mawu (moon) and Lisa (sun), the parents of all the other gods, who were also born in sets of twins. Some African cosmogonies, however, are less concerned with the creation of the physical universe and the gods than with the appearance of the first man and first woman and the ordering of human society.

The notion of a supreme creator god appears throughout Africa. The Bushongo people of the Congo region called the creator Bumba. He was the sole inhabitant of a watery universe until he vomited up the sun, which dried the water. Then he vomited up the first animals and people.

The Americas. The Incas of South America claimed that darkness covered the earth until the god Con Tiqui Viracocha rose out of a lake, bringing with him the first people. He made more people out of rocks, then sent them out to populate the whole world. When these inhabitants rebelled against Con Tiqui Viracocha, he punished them by stopping the rainfall. A god named Pachachamac overthrew Con Tiqui Viracocha and created a new race of people, the ancestors of humans.

Creation myths of Native Americans generally explain how the world took its present form, including the origins of human culture. Some tales feature a creator god or pair of gods, such as the Sun Father and Moonlight-giving Mother of the Zuni people. Many groups, including the Cheyenne, have stories of an earth diver.

Indians of the Southwest may have developed myths of emergence because their agricultural way of life led them to think of growth as a movement upward from below the earth's surface. The Hopi of Arizona say that creation brought four worlds into existence. Life began in the bottom level or cave, which eventually grew dirty and crowded. A pair of twin brothers carried plants from heaven, and the people climbed up the cane plant into the second cave. When that place became too crowded, they climbed up again into the third cave. Finally, the brother gods led the people out into this world, the fourth level of creation.

dualistic consisting of two equal and opposing forces

Near East. The ancient Egyptians believed that before the world existed there was only Nun, the watery nothingness. Then a mound of land rose, giving the first deity a place to live. In some accounts, the first deity took the form of a bird. Others said that a lotus flower containing a god rose from the water. Cults developed around several Egyptian creator gods: Amun and Atum, the sun gods; Khnum, who made men and women from clay and breathed life into them; and Ptah, who created the other gods by saying their names.

Creation Stories - Myth Encyclopedia (1)

Aztec mythology tells of four creator gods, each associated with a direction and a color—Tezcatlipoca, the north and black; Quetzalcoatl, the west and white; Huitzilopochtli, the south and blue; and Xipe Totec, the east and red. This drawing shows Hueheuteotl, the god of fire, surrounded by the four directions.

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Among the Semitic * creation myths of western Asia is the story of how God formed the world, the Garden of Eden, and Adam and Eve, the first parents. It is the cosmogony of the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic faiths.

In the dualistic Persian or Iranian cosmogony, the good and wise lord Ahura Mazda began creation by sending beams of light into an abyss where Ahriman, lord of evil and sin, lived. Ahura Mazda cast Ahriman into hell for 3,000 years. This gave Ahura Mazda time to create spirits of virtue, angels, and the creatures of earth, including Gayomart, the first man. When Ahriman's time in hell ended, he created flies, germs, pests, and other evils. One of his wicked followers brought disease and death to Gayomart, but a plant that grew from Gayomart's remains bore fruit that became the human race.

Asia. Japanese tradition, preserved in a volume of mythological history called the Kojiki, says that before creation there was an oily sea. Gods came into being in the High Plains of Heaven. After seven generations of deities came the first human ancestors, whose task was to make solid land. They stirred the sea with a jeweled spear. Drops that fell from the spear formed the islands of Japan.

A Chinese creation myth tells how Pan Gu hatched from a cosmic egg. One part of the eggshell formed the heavens; the other part became the earth. For 18,000 years, Pan Gu stood between them, keeping them apart by growing ever taller. Finally he became weary, lay down, and died. From his eyes came the sun and moon, from his hair the stars, from his breath the wind, and from his body the earth.

deity god or goddess

cult group bound together by devotion to a particular person, belief, or god

Indian mythology, linked to both the Hindu and the Buddhist religions, contains many creation stories. Hindus often speak of Brahma as the creator god who brought the universe into being through his thoughts. Sometimes creation involves the sacrifice of a primal being such as Purusha, from whose body all the gods were made. Other myths describe the breaking of a cosmic egg or the union of heaven and earth as cosmic parents.

Creation Stories - Myth Encyclopedia (2)

This scene from a sarcophagus in Thebes illustrates part of an Egyptian creation myth. According to this myth, the world was produced from the union of the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut.

(Video) Enuma Elish | The Babylonian Epic of Creation | Complete Audiobook | With Commentary

Australia and the Pacific. In the mythology of Australia's native peoples, the period of creation was called Dreamtime, or The Dreaming. During this time, ancestral beings created the landscape, made the first people, and taught them how to survive. Some Aboriginal myths tell of a great flood that destroyed the previous landscape and the former society. According to many accounts, a great serpent caused the flood when he became angry with the ancestral people.

The vast Pacific Ocean contains the Polynesian, Melanesian, and Micronesian island groups, which produced a variety of cosmogonies. Not surprisingly, many of these myths involve water.

According to some Polynesians, a creator god named Tangaloa sent a bird messenger over an endless primal sea. At last Tangaloa threw a rock into the sea so the tired bird would have a place to land. Then the god created all the islands in the same way. The bird made the first people by giving arms, legs, hearts, and souls to maggots. Other Polynesian stories describe creation as the union of two opposing qualities: Po (darkness) and Ao (light). Polynesian and Micronesian cosmogonies often include the act of separating the earth from the sky. Melanesian creation myths generally involve ancestral heroes who wander from place to place, forming the landscape and creating the rules of society.

Related Entries

Other entries related to creation stones are listed at the end of this article.

Europe. Norse creation myths tell how the giant Ymir took shape in the huge icy emptiness called Ginnungagap. Ymir's great cow licked the ice, creating the first gods, including Odin * . The gods killed Ymir and divided his body into a series of worlds on three levels: Asgard, the realm of gods; Midgard, the realm of people, giants, dwarfs, and elves; and Niflheim, the realm of the dead. The gods created the first man and woman from an ash tree and an elm tree. (The creation of people from trees has a parallel in Native American stories about Gluskap making man from an ash trunk.)

Greek cosmogonies, echoed by the Romans, begin with birth and end with struggle. Gaia, the earth mother, emerged from chaos and gave birth to Uranus, the sky. The union of Uranus and Gaia produced plants, animals, and children, the Titans. Imprisoned by their father, the Titans overthrew Uranus, only to be overthrown by their own children, the gods. Another Greek creation myth, possibly borrowed from the ancient Near East, combines many images and themes. It tells how a primal goddess emerged from the waters of chaos. Her union with a serpent produced a cosmic egg that split to become the heaven and the earth.

See also African Mythology ; Australian Mythology ; Aztec Mythology ; Buddhism and Mythology ; Celtic Mythology ; Chinese Mythology ; Dreamtime ; Egyptian Mythology ; Enuma Elish ; Finnish Mythology ; Floods ; Gluskap ; Greek Mythology ; Hinduism and Mythology ; Inca Mythology ; Japanese Mythology ; Mayan Mythology ; Melanesian Mythology ; Micronesian Mythology ; Native American Mythology ; Norse Mythology ; Persian Mythology ; Polynesian Mythology ; Roman Mythology ; Semitic Mythology ; Upanishads .

* See Names and Places at the end of this volume for further information.

[See Names and Places at the end of this volume for further information.

* See Names and Places at the end of this volume for further information.


What are the 5 types of creation myths? ›

2) Encyclopedia Britannica classifies creation myth into six types: cre- ation by creator, creation through emergence, creation by world parents, creation from the cosmic egg, creation by Earth divers, creation by corpse transformation.

What is a myth or story that explains creation? ›

creation myth, also called cosmogonic myth, philosophical and theological elaboration of the primal myth of creation within a religious community. The term myth here refers to the imaginative expression in narrative form of what is experienced or apprehended as basic reality (see also myth).

What is myth encyclopedia? ›

Encyclopedia Mythica. Encyclopedia that allows you to explore a multitude of mythology and to a lesser extent folklore from all over the world. Mythopedia. Resource that allows you to explore mythology from all over the world. Included are Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Chinese, Norse, Japanese, Celtic and Aztec.

What are the themes in creation myths? ›

Yet, despite this there are some extremely common themes and events throughout these myths. Three of the most common creation myth motifs are, women bringing in evil and suffering, a bloody struggle or warfare, and an imperfect creator.

What are the 9 creation myths? ›

This chart lists Weigle's nine types of creation myths (accretion/conjunction, secretion, sacrifice, division/conjugation, earth-diver, emergence, two creators, deus faber, ex nihilo) and provides a brief description of and emphasis for each (Leonard and McClure 33-43).

What are the 7 Stages of creation? ›

This account goes on to describe the seven days of creation:
  • in the beginning - God started creation.
  • the first day - light was created.
  • the second day - the sky was created.
  • the third day - dry land, seas, plants and trees were created.
  • the fourth day - the Sun, Moon and stars were created.

What is the original creation story? ›

In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters. (1) Then God said, "Let there be light;" and there was light.

What story is an example of a myth? ›

An example is the ancient Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh, which includes, among many mythical episodes, an account of the meeting between the hero Gilgamesh and Utnapishtim, the only human being to have attained immortality and sole survivor (with his wife) of the flood sent by the gods.

What is the difference between a creation myth and an origin myth? ›

An origin myth is a myth that describes the origin of some feature of the natural or social world. One type of origin myth is the creation or cosmogonic myth, a story that describes the creation of the world.

What are the 4 types of myths? ›

Introduction. There are four basic theories of myth. Those theories are: the rational myth theory, functional myth theory, structural myth theory, and the psychological myth theory.

What are 4 examples of myths? ›

Some examples of famous myths are:
  • Hercules and the Lion (Greece)
  • The Birth of Horus (Egypt)
  • The Children of Lir (Ireland)
  • Valmiki's Curse (India)
  • Thor's Hammer (Scandinavia)
  • Theseus and the Minotaur (Ancient Greece)
  • Isis and Osiris (Ancient Egypt)

What is a myth Grade 7? ›

Myths are stories that have been told for centuries and used to explain a natural phenomenon or teach a lesson.

What is the main conflict in the story of the creation? ›

During the protological act of creation, conflicts arose between Yahweh and the creatures-the sea serpent, land serpent, and humanity; consequently, conflict between the land serpent and humanity arose.

What does the creation myth teach us? ›

A creation myth acts as a cornerstone for distinguishing primary reality from relative reality, the origin and nature of being from non-being. In this sense cosmogonic myths serve as a philosophy of life – but one expressed and conveyed through symbol rather than through systematic reason.

What is the conflict of the story of creation? ›

That is, the fundamental conflict between God and his creatures is evidenced by two conflicts: conflict at sea with Leviathan/Rahab (Pss 74:12-17; 89:9-14), and conflict on land with the serpent and humankind (Gen 2:4b-3:24).

What is the oldest creation myth? ›

This week we are going to analyze the oldest creation story ever recorded, known as the Eridu Genesis. This story was written in the 2nd Millenium BCE by the Sumerians. While mankind had existed prior to that time for thousands and tens of thousands of years, this was the first creation story ever recorded in history.

How many biblical creation stories are there? ›

The creation narrative is made up of two stories, roughly equivalent to the two first chapters of the Book of Genesis (there are no chapter divisions in the original Hebrew text; see Chapters and verses of the Bible).

What are the 6 elements of a myth? ›

Elicit from them that myths—like other stories—contain the following elements: characters, setting, conflict, plot, and resolution. In addition, myths usually explained some aspect of nature or accounted for some human action. Frequently, myths also included a metamorphosis, a change in shape or form.

What is the order of creation according to? ›

In the six-day creation story, the order of creation is plants, birds and fish, mammals and reptiles, and finally man to reign over all created before him, while in the Adam and Eve story, the creation order is reversed, with man coming first, then plants and animals.

Who created the God? ›

We ask, "If all things have a creator, then who created God?" Actually, only created things have a creator, so it's improper to lump God with his creation. God has revealed himself to us in the Bible as having always existed.

What are the different stories of creation? ›

Basic type
  • Enûma Eliš (Babylonian creation myth)
  • Greek cosmogonical myth.
  • Jamshid.
  • Korean creation narratives.
  • Kumulipo.
  • Leviathan (Book of Job 38–41 creation myth)
  • Mandé creation myth.
  • Pangu.

Is creation stories a true story? ›

Creation Stories is a 2021 British biographical film about Alan McGee and Creation Records, directed by Nick Moran. The film was adapted from McGee's 2013 autobiography of the same name, by Irvine Welsh and Dean Cavanagh.

Who was the first creation? ›

ADAM1 was the first man. There are two stories of his creation. The first tells that God created man in his image, male and female together (Genesis 1: 27), and Adam is not named in this version.

Why did God create the world? ›

God brought the world into existence and as the capstone of this good work, he created people in his image so that they could share in his overflowing love, grace and goodness through their relationships with the Trinity. God did not need the world or need people because God has no lack.

What is a myth short answer? ›

Myths are stories that are based on tradition. Some may have factual origins, while others are completely fictional. But myths are more than mere stories and they serve a more profound purpose in ancient and modern cultures. Myths are sacred tales that explain the world and man's experience.

What is an example of Greek creation myth? ›

Once there was Light and Day, Gaea, the earth appeared. Then Erebus slept with Night, who gave birth to Ether, the heavenly light, and to Day the earthly light. Then Night alone produced Doom, Fate, Death, Sleep, Dreams, Nemesis, and others that come to man out of darkness.

What are the three elements of a creation myth? ›

Many creation myths consisted of at least one of three elements; an order or instruction from the creator to the creations, a sin and a consequence which must be faced. The consequence is often what causes pain, hunger, disease and all the other evils that plaque the earth.

What are common elements in creation myths? ›

Many creation myths share broadly similar themes. Common motifs include the fractionation of the things of the world from a primordial chaos; the separation of the mother and father gods; land emerging from an infinite and timeless ocean; or creation out of nothing.

What are the four functions of a creation myth? ›

In studying myths and religions around the world, Joseph Campbell recognized four functions of myth: mystical, cosmological, sociological, and psychological.

What are the 4 types of myth? ›

Introduction. There are four basic theories of myth. Those theories are: the rational myth theory, functional myth theory, structural myth theory, and the psychological myth theory.

What are all the types of myths? ›

The Three Types of Myths: Aetiological, Historical, and Psychological.

What are the different parts of a creation myth? ›

Many creation myths consisted of at least one of three elements; an order or instruction from the creator to the creations, a sin and a consequence which must be faced. The consequence is often what causes pain, hunger, disease and all the other evils that plaque the earth.

Is a myth a true story? ›

Myths are stories that are based on tradition. Some may have factual origins, while others are completely fictional. But myths are more than mere stories and they serve a more profound purpose in ancient and modern cultures. Myths are sacred tales that explain the world and man's experience.

What was the first myth ever? ›

The oldest recorded myth is The Epic of Gilgamesh, a Mesopotamian epic poem written around 2000 BC. Enuma Elish, a Babylonian creation myth written in cuneiform around 1200 BC, is also ancient.

What is a myth story example? ›

In Greek mythology, a popular myth is the tale of Daedalus and Icarus. In this myth, a father, Daedalus, builds him and his son, Icarus, wings in order to escape from the maze in which they are being held captive.

What are the 3 characteristics of a myth? ›

Complete opposites such as night/day and good/evil often play important roles in the plot of a myth. There is an emphasis on language. Mythical heroes are often sophisticated storytellers. Myths are created to comment or analyze a real world event.

What are two examples of a myth? ›

Some examples of famous myths are:
  • Hercules and the Lion (Ancient Greece)
  • The Birth of Horus (Ancient Egypt)
  • The Children of Lir (Ireland)
  • Valmiki's Curse (India)
  • Thor's Hammer (Scandinavia)
  • Theseus and the Minotaur (Ancient Greece)
  • Isis and Osiris (Ancient Egypt)

What were the first myths? ›

The oldest myth in the world is, not surprisingly, a psychological myth relating to the inevitability of death and the individual's attempt to find meaning in life. The Epic of Gilgamesh (written c. 2150-c.

Who is the oldest goddess? ›

Ishtar Is the Earliest Deity in Written Evidence

Ishtar holds a special historical significance, as she is the earliest goddess in written evidence. Early Mesopotamians called her Inanna, as seen in the now extinct language of cuneiform writing, the primary form of communication in the Ancient Near East.

How did mythology start? ›

Myths and legends began to be recorded just as soon as humans mastered the technology of writing. Often the very first texts were hymns to the gods or collections of mythological stories that became organised into cycles, explaining how the world was created, how humans came into existence or why Death is necessary.

How many stories of creation are there? ›

The creation narrative is made up of two stories, roughly equivalent to the two first chapters of the Book of Genesis (there are no chapter divisions in the original Hebrew text; see Chapters and verses of the Bible).

What are the three main types of myth give an example of each? ›

3.2: The Three Types of Myth
  • A natural aetiological myth explains an aspect of nature. For example, you could explain lightning and thunder by saying that Zeus is angry.
  • An etymological aetiological myth explains the origin of a word. ...
  • A religious aetiological myth explains the origin of a religious ritual.
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