Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock that shaped from rounded gravel and boulder sized clasts cemented or in a matrix supperted. The rounding of the clasts show that rocks have been transported a long way from their source or on a seaside tide to wave movement. The clast cement is usually calcite, silica or iron oxide but the matrix can consist only of the cementing cloth, however can also include sand and / or silt sized clasts cemented together the various coarser clasts.
Class: Conglomeratemay be divided into large lessons:
Grain size: >2mm; Clasts easily visible to the naked eye, should be identifiable.
Hardness: Soft tohard, dependent on clast composition and strength of cement.
Colour: variable,dependent on clast and matrix composition.
Clasts: variable,but generally harder rock types and / or minerals dominate.
Other features: Clastsgenerally smooth to touch, matrix variable.
Classification of Conglomerate
Conglomerates named and classifield by the
- Type and amount of matrix present
- Composition of gravel-size clasts they contain
- Size range of gravel-size clasts present
A sedimentary rock consisting mainly of gravel is first named according to the roundness of the gravel. If the gravel clasts that form it are well-rounded to subrounded, to a large extent, it is a conglomerate. If the pebble clips forming it are largely angular, it is a breccia. Such breccias may be called sedimentary breccias to distinguish them from other breccia types.
- The amount and chemical composition of the matrix.If the clasts do not touch each other (lots of matrix), the rock isparaconglomerate. Rock in which the clasts touch each other is calledorthoconglomerate.
- The composition of the clasts. If all the clastsare the same type of rock or mineral), the rock is categorized as monomicticconglomerate. If the clasts are made up of two or more rocks or minerals, therock is a polymictic conglomerate.
- The size of the clasts. Rock comprised of largeclasts is cobble conglomerate. If the clasts are pebble-sized, the rock iscalled pebble conglomerate. If the clasts are small granules, the rock iscalled granule conglomerate.
The environment that deposited the material. Conglomeratesmay form from glacial, alluvial, fluvial, deepwater marine, or shallow marineenvironments.
Conglomerate can have a variety of compositions. As aclastic sedimentary rock, it can contain clasts of any rock material orweathering product that is washed downstream or down current. The roundedclasts of conglomerate can be mineral particles such as quartz, or they can besedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous rock fragments. The matrix that binds thelarge clasts together can be a mixture of sand, mud, and chemical cement.
Conglomerate can be formed at an areas where strong watercurrent exist like mountain down slope where water has enough current flow thatit can carry the rock fragments above 2 millimetre. It can also be formed atbeaches where water current is strong and rock fragments are available to beaccumulated for forming conglomerate. Conglomerate is formed when large clastpebble or cobble size fragments transported and deposited than the finergrained fills the spaces in between the clast.
Where is it found
Conglomerates are deposited in various sedimentaryenvironments.
In turbidites, the basal part of a bed is typicallycoarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. In this setting, conglomerates arenormally very well sorted, well-rounded and often with a strong A-axis typeimbrication of the clasts.
Conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequenceslaid down during marine transgressions above an unconformity, and are known asbasal conglomerates. They represent the position of the shoreline at aparticular time and are diachronous.
Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments aretypically well rounded and well sorted. Clasts of this size are carried asbedload and only at times of high flow-rate. The maximum clast size decreasesas the clasts are transported further due to attrition, so conglomerates aremore characteristic of immature river systems. In the sediments deposited bymature rivers, conglomerates are generally confined to the basal part of achannel fill where they are known as pebble lags. Conglomerates deposited in afluvial environment often have an AB-plane type imbrication.
Alluvial deposits form in areas of high relief and aretypically coarse-grained. At mountain fronts individual alluvial fans merge toform braidplains and these two environments are associated with the thickestdeposits of conglomerates. The bulk of conglomerates deposited in this settingare clast-supported with a strong AB-plane imbrication. Matrix-supportedconglomerates, as a result of debris-flow deposition, are quite commonly associatedwith many alluvial fans. When such conglomerates accumulate within an alluvialfan, in rapidly eroding (e.g., desert) environments, the resulting rock unit isoften called a fanglomerate.
Glaciers carry a lot of coarse-grained material and manyglacial deposits are conglomeratic. Tillites, the sediments deposited directlyby a glacier, are typically poorly sorted, matrix-supported conglomerates. Thematrix is generally fine-grained, consisting of finely milled rock fragments.Waterlaid deposits associated with glaciers are often conglomeratic, formingstructures such as eskers.
Characteristics and Properties
Conglomerate is a sedimentary rock that looks like concrete.It consists of large, rounded pebbles (clasts) cemented by a matrix made ofcalcite, iron oxide, or silica.
Conglomerate rock occurs where gravel can become rounded bytraveling distances or being subjected to tumbling. Beaches, riverbeds, andglaciers can produce conglomerate.
The properties of conglomerate rock depend on itscomposition. It can be found in any color and may be either hard or soft.
Conglomerate can be used as a fill material for roads andconstruction. Hard rock may be cut and polished to make dimension stone.
Conglomerate has veryfew uses because of it not clean breakage and fine particles are unreliable. Itcan only be used as a crush where low performance material is wanted.Conglomerate has very few commercial uses. Its inability to break cleanly makesit a poor candidate for dimension stone, and its variable composition makes ita rock of unreliable physical strength and durability. Conglomerate can becrushed to make a fine aggregate that can be used where a low-performancematerial is suitable. Many conglomerates are colorful and attractive rocks, butthey are only rarely used as an ornamental stone for interior use.
Analysis of conglomerate can sometimes be used as a prospecting tool. For example, most diamond deposits are hosted in kimberlite. If a conglomerate contains clasts of kimberlite, then the source of that kimberlite must be somewhere upstream.
Conglomerate and Breccia
Conglomerates and breccias are two sedimentary rocks close to each other, but differ significantly in the form of clasts. Clasts in the conglomerate are rounded or at least partially rounded, whereas the clast in the breccias have sharp corners. Sometimes sedimentary rocks contain a mixture of round and angled buckles. This type of rock can be called breccio-conglomerate.
- Conglomerate is closely related to sandstone and displays many of the same types of sedimentary structures. Sandstone is a notably popular building material, used for things like flagstones and tile.
- Conglomerate rocks are colorful and attractive; however, it is rarely used as ornamental stone for interior use because of its unreliable physical strength and durability.
- Conglomerate has very few commercial uses, though it can be crushed to make a fine aggregate that can be used when a low-performance material is needed.
- Conglomerate forms where sediments of rounded clasts at least two millimeters in diameter accumulate. Because of the large size of the clasts, it takes a very strong water current to transport and shape the rocks. As they tumble through the running water or moving waves, they form their rounded shape.
- These rocks can be found in sedimentary rock sequences of all ages. They probably make up less than one percent by weight of all sedimentary rocks.
- When the gravel clasts in a conglomerate are separated from each other and contain more matrix than clasts, it is called a paraconglomerate. When they are in contact with each other, it is called a orthoconglomerate.
- Similar sedimentary rocks that are composed of large angular clasts are referred to as breccia. While a conglomerate is composed of rounded clasts, breccia is composed of broken rocks or minerals.
- NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity discovered an outcrop of conglomerate on the surface of Mars in September 2012. This provided evidence to scientists that a stream once ran across the area where the rover was driving. The shape and sizes of the stones can offer clues to the distance and speed of the stream’s flow.
- Bonewitz, R. (2012). Rocks and minerals. 2nd ed. London: DK Publishing.
- Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2018, October 19). Conglomerate Rock: Geology, Composition, Uses. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/conglomerate-rock-4169696
- Wikipedia contributors. (2019, March 27). Conglomerate (geology). InWikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:34, April 10, 2019, fromhttps://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Conglomerate_(geology)&oldid=889709029
What are the uses of conglomerate? ›
Conglomerates make up only a small percentage of all clastic sedimentary rocks. A common use for conglomerate is as a source of aggregates for construction; rarely, it is used as a building stone. Most of Ohio's conglomerates are of Carboniferous (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian) ages.What is the classification and composition of conglomerate? ›
Conglomerate (/kənˈɡlɒmərɪt/) is a clastic sedimentary rock that is composed of a substantial fraction of rounded to subangular gravel-size clasts. A conglomerate typically contains a matrix of finer-grained sediments, such as sand, silt, or clay, which fills the interstices between the clasts.What are the criteria used for the classification of conglomerates? ›
Classification of conglomerates is based on the range of lithologies represented in pebbles, degree of size-sorting, composition of matrix, and whether or not clasts are in contact with each other. Each of these criteria has genetic implications.What is the formation of conglomerate? ›
Conglomerate is made up of rounded pebbles (>2mm) cemented together. They are formed from sediment deposited by fast-flowing rivers or by waves on beaches.What is an important characteristic of conglomerate? ›
The key characteristic of conglomerate is the presence of readily visible, rounded clasts bound within a matrix. The clasts tend to feel smooth to the touch, although the matrix can be either rough or smooth. The hardness and color of the rock is highly variable.What are 3 characteristics of a conglomerate? ›
Characteristics and Properties
Conglomerate is a sedimentary rock that looks like concrete. It consists of large, rounded pebbles (clasts) cemented by a matrix made of calcite, iron oxide, or silica. Conglomerate rock occurs where gravel can become rounded by traveling distances or being subjected to tumbling.
Coarse-grained (>2 mm) rocks with rounded grains are called conglomerate.What are the advantages of a conglomerate? ›
Advantages. Despite its rarity, conglomerate mergers have several advantages: diversification, an expanded customer base, and increased efficiency. Through diversification, the risk of loss lessens. If one business sector performs poorly, other, better-performing business units can compensate for the losses.What is the main reason for a conglomerate to want diversification? ›
A conglomerate diversification strategy helps lessen the risk of loss. For example, if one business sector experiences a decline, other business sectors compensate for the losses. Products cross-selling. A conglomerate merger allows companies to cross-sell their products when the target market is similar.What are the different types of conglomerate? ›
Five general types of conglomerate were considered, namely: marine, fluviatile, estuarine, lacustrine, and glacial. In addition to these, another type was studied, commonly known as crush-conglom- erate, but really pseudo-conglomeratic in its nature.
What rock classification is conglomerate? ›
Conglomerates are clastic sedimentary rock that contains mostly pebble-size rounded clasts. The spaces between the clasts are generally filled with smaller particles and/or chemical cement that then binds and formed the rock matrices together.Where does a conglomerate typically form? ›
Conglomerate-Forming Environment: A beach where strong waves have deposited rounded, cobble-size rocks. If buried and lithified, these materials might be transformed into a conglomerate.What are two characteristics of a conglomerate? ›
Conglomerate is a coarse-grained rock that is often formed in riverbeds. The pebbles and sand can be composed of many different minerals, but it is usually quartz-based minerals. Conglomerate has a variable hardness, and it often looks like concrete. It is usually found in mostly thick, crudely stratified layers.What is the effect of conglomeration? ›
Conglomerate effects arise when the products of the merging firms are not in the same product market, nor are they inputs or outputs of one another. Such mergers could enable tying and bundling strategies that foreclose competition, enable price discrimination, or soften competition among firms.What is conglomerate diversification growth strategy? ›
a growth strategy in which a company seeks to develop by adding totally unrelated products and markets to its existing business.What are the pros and cons of conglomerate diversification? ›
In most cases, companies can benefit from conglomerate diversification because of increased profit potential and expanded business reach. On the other hand, a merged company can suffer if management is not adept with the new products or if the new company gets stretched too thin.What are conglomerate diversification strategies? ›
Conglomerate diversification involves adding new products or services that are significantly unrelated and with no technological or commercial similarities. For example, if a computer company decides to produce notebooks, the company is pursuing a conglomerate diversification strategy.What is an example of a conglomerate structure? ›
In a way, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, etc., are called a conglomerate by many due to their large-scale diversification from core business.What is conglomerate structure? ›
Key Takeaways. A conglomerate is a corporation made up of several different, independent businesses. In a conglomerate, one company owns a controlling stake in smaller companies that each conduct business operations separately. Conglomerates can be created in several ways, including mergers or acquisitions.What is the main difference between a conglomerate? ›
A clastic rock made of particles larger than 2 mm in diameter is either a conglomerate or breccia. A conglomerate has rounded clasts while a breccia has angular clasts. Since water transport rapidly rounds large clasts, breccias normally indicate minimal transport.
Which of the following is most characteristic of conglomerate? ›
Which of the following is a characteristic of a conglomerate? A conglomerate is fine-grained and well sorted.How is conglomerate formed quizlet? ›
Conglomerates form by the consolidation and lithification of gravel. Conglomerates typically contain finer grained sediment, e.g., either sand, silt, clay or combination of them, called matrix by geologists, filling their interstices and are often cemented by calcium carbonate, iron oxide, silica, or hardened clay.What are examples of conglomerate? ›
Conglomerates are usually defined as a multi-industry company, and they've invariably become multi-industry through acquisitions. Some of the biggest conglomerates in the world are now the companies that come up in everyday conversation: Mars, P&G, Nestle, Philips, General Electric and more.What are two examples of conglomerates? ›
In a way, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, etc., are called a conglomerate by many due to their large-scale diversification from core business. For example, Amazon has come a long way from delivering books.What are two facts about conglomerate? ›
A conglomerate is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finer-grained matrix that have become cemented together. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias, which consist of angular clasts.What are the types of conglomerate business? ›
There are two types of conglomerate mergers: pure and mixed. Pure conglomerate mergers involve firms with nothing in common, while mixed conglomerate mergers involve firms that are looking for product extensions or market extensions.What are the advantages of conglomerates? ›
- Diversification. A conglomerate diversification strategy helps lessen the risk of loss. ...
- Products cross-selling. A conglomerate merger allows companies to cross-sell their products when the target market is similar. ...
- Excess cash. ...
- Customer base extension. ...
- Investment opportunity.
A conglomerate is a corporation made up of several different, independent businesses. In a conglomerate, one company owns a controlling stake in smaller companies that each conduct business operations separately. Conglomerates can be created in several ways, including mergers or acquisitions.Where does conglomerate form? ›
Conglomerate is a coarse-grained rock that is often formed in riverbeds. The pebbles and sand can be composed of many different minerals, but it is usually quartz-based minerals. Conglomerate has a variable hardness, and it often looks like concrete. It is usually found in mostly thick, crudely stratified layers.How do you structure a conglomerate? ›
A conglomerate is made up of several firms that are distinct in operations but stringed together to operate under one group. In many cases, conglomerates are large and multinational companies, in this set up, one parent company controls the stake of other distinct firms and businesses.
What are the three main types of business formations? ›
The most common forms of business are the sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, and S corporation.